Scripture and Scholars say...


1 Ki. 14:15, God “shall scatter” Israel “beyond the river,” not all in one place.

2 Ki. 10:32, “In those days the Lord began to cut off parts of Israel...” –before their final complete exile.

2 Ki. 17:6, The Assyrian king “captured Samaria and exiled Israel”

Deut. 29:28, “cast them into another land, as it is this day”

Isa. 5:26 “the end of the earth”

Isa. 11:11-12, “the four corners of the earth”

Isa. 27:13 (Vulgate), “those lost from the land of Assyria”

Isa. 49:9, “say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Show yourselves.” An address to the lost ten tribes according to Jewish midrash “Pesikta Rabbati 31:10”

Isa. 49:21, (Ten Tribes:) “where had they been?”

Jer. 15:4, “I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth”

Hos. 2:14, “I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness,” not a return to Canaan.

Hos. 8:8, “Israel is swallowed up now among the nations”

Hos. 9:17, “wanderers among the nations”

Ezra 1:15, ONLY “Judah and Benjamin” returned; remaining ten tribes did not return

“Israel and Judah... developed more or less independent of the other, Israel in the north and Judah in the south; and only gradually did circumstances bring them together, and then came the inevitable clash of interests, religious as well as political.” –"Hebrew Origins," Theophile James Meek, 1936, p.76

“Israel as a kingdom was never restored from Assyria, as Judah was from Babylon after 70 years.” –Jamieson, Faucett, Brown Commentary, p.650

“There never was a real return from the exile, although some individuals doubtless returned...the captivity of Israel did not actually terminate at 538 [B.C.], nor, in fact, ever.” –Geo. Ricker Berry, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, “Was Ezekiel in the Exile?” pp.89, 92 (Journal of Biblical Literature 49 (1930)

“Many of the towns in southern Judah and Simeon were not reoccupied after the exile. This process was quite as disastrous as it is portrayed in the Old Testament...” –Thos. Davis, “Shifting Sands,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2004

“That the Redeemer comes ‘from Zion’ [Isa. 59:20] for Israel implies that Israel is in exile...” –G.K. Beale and D.A. Carson, “Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament,” Baker Academic, 2007, p.674

“The exile, into all lands, among all nations, was as irrevocably decreed as was the destruction of the city.” –Charles C. Torrey, Yale University, Journal of Biblical Literature 56 (1937), p.206

“...the returnees came only from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin —the exiles in Babylon. The ten tribes did not return...the loss of the [ten] tribes marked the greatest demographic defeat inscribed in Jewish memory since Biblical times.” –Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, “The Ten Lost Tribes: A World History,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2009, pp.17, 117

“Evidently it was a token return...” –Frank Moore Cross, Harvard University, “A Reconstruction Of The Judean Restoration,” Journal of Biblical Literature 94 (1975), p.15

“The tree of Israel, grown from one root with various branches, was cut into pieces.” –John Calvin, cited in Boer, “John Calvin,” pp. 190-191

“The ten [tribes] which had previously been carried away being scattered among the Parthians, Medes, Indians, and Ethiopians never returned to their native country, and are to this day held under the sway of barbarous nations.” –Sulpitius Severus (circa. 360-420 A.D.), Severus, Sacred History, bk ii, ch. Ii, in Schaff, et al., transl. Sulpitius Severus

“Jewish people often thought that ten of the twelve tribes were lost and would be restored only in the end time.” –Craig Keener, “A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew,” Eerdmans, 1999, p.315

The ten tribes’ not returning opened “a huge wound that does not heal.” –Talmudic Haga, Sefer Ha-Berit Ha-Hadash

"The prophecy of a restored and reunited Israel and Judah...was never actually to be fulfilled... Intransigence on the part of both...produced separate and irreconcilable societies that were never able to reunite." -Bruce Vawter, "Amos, Hosea, Micah, With An Introduction To Classical Prophecy," p.81

 

 

 

 

 

Language and Geography

a connection between the original homeland
of both the hebrews and the goths


Information from language scholars past and present,
such as Dr. Joseph Bosworth and Dr. Isaac Mozeson.


Introduction:

          Rev. Dr. Joseph Bosworth (1789-1876) was a reknowned ­language scholar in his day. On the subject of origins, he stated, “The Goths were of Asiatic origin... [early Roman historian] Tacitus speaks of no Goths in Scandinavia.” (The Origin of the Germanic And Scandinavian Languages And Nations, pp. 112-113) The scholarly twenty-volume series, Asiatic Researches, adds this important information: “A late very learned writer concludes, after all his laborious ­researches, that the Goths or Scythians came from Persia; and another contends with great force, that both the Irish and old Britons proceeded severally from the borders of the Caspian; a ­coincidence of conclusions from different media by persons wholly unconnected, which could scarce have happened, if they were not grounded on solid principles.” (II:65) The lost Ten Tribes of ­Israel were last seen in Persia on the shores of the Caspian Sea, where they suddenly and mysteriously disappeared to history at the very same time and place as several European tribes just as suddenly and mysteriously first appeared to history.

            Many historians fail to see this, insisting instead that the Caucasian peoples originated in far northwest-European Scandinavia. But Encyclopedia Britannica wisely stated, “IT HAS BEEN observed with truth that so many populous Nations can hardly have sprung from the Scandinavian PENINSULA.” (11th ed., 12:272) Similarly, Winfred P. Lehman has commented, “The further eastward an Indo-European people lives, the more archaisms are found in its language; the further westward they have gone, the fewer archaisms, and the more numerous new-formations are found in its language. From these and other indications we infer that... The home of the Indo-European original race must be sought in the highlands of Central Asia.” (A Reader In Nineteenth Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics, Indiana University Press, 1967)

            The origin of European peoples was in the East, but not in Central Asia. Linguist Margaret M. Bryant says, “Professor [Harold] Bender shows in his excellent study [The Home of the Indo-Europeans, pp. 21-22] that the honeybee is indigenous to most parts of Europe and that almost ­every Indo-European language has a common word for honey... Professor Bender is careful to point out that the various locations in Asia that have been suggested as the original homeland [of the Caucasian race] are not the regions frequented by the honeybee.” (Modern English and its Heritage, pp. 19-21) Where in Asia were honeybees found in Biblical times? The land of Canaan in ancient Palestine provides the answer to the problem of the scholars. Bees and honey were plentiful in Palestine: There are 60 references to bees and honey in the Bible. The “Caucasians” did come from the East, but it was the Mid-East, not Central Asia. The Mid-East fits ­language requirements of an Eastern origin, as well.

The Semitic-Indo-European Connection

            Some fail to see the connection between Europe and the Hebrew lost tribes because Semitic and Indo-European languages differ. Recent scholarship, however, has demonstrated through the principles of “element correspondences” and “expression elements,” that Indo-European and Semitic are relatives. Danish Language scholar, Louis Hjelmslev stated that the “genetic relationship between the two languages [Indo-European and Semitic] …can be accounted for only on the assumption that the two languages have a common origin.(Language, An Introduction, Univ. of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, 1970, p. 127) Dr. Hjelmslev’s conclusion is that Semitic and Indo-European “developed from the splitting of a single basic language.” (ibid., p. 83) Danish language scholars have therefore proposed dropping the terms ‘Indo-European’ and ‘Semitic’ in favor of one new combined language family called ‘Nostratic,’ from the Latin meaning, ‘our own countrymen.’ (ibid., p. 80)

            Hebrew language scholar, Dr. Isaac Elchanan Mozeson, spent many years analyzing the link between the Indo-European and Semitic language groups. His findings resulted in a comprehensive guide, The Word, The Dictionary That Reveals The Hebrew Source Of English. In this he was preceded by the author of the popular English dictionary, Noah Webster, who also traced hundreds of words to a Semitic source. Mozeson says, “Many words should be acknowledged as borrowings from the Hebrew. Some of these giant oversights include: OGRE (from mighty Og King of Bashan) and COLLOSSUS (a Greek version of the Hebrew GoLLiuS, familiar to English speakers as Goliath.)”

            Mozeson continues, “The few acknowledged borrowings from Hebrew, like AMEN and JUBILEE, should also be credited to words like AMENABLE and JUBILATE, which are attributed to other sources. There are thousands of other English and Hebrew words that sound remarkably alike and mean the same, but are not cited by linguists. A few of these are ABASH and BooSHa, ALBINO and LaBHaN, EVIL and AVeL, LICK and LaKaK, and REGULAR and RaGeeL... Many animal names only have meanings in the Biblical language of Adam: GIRAFFE means ‘neck,’ SKUNK means ‘stink,’ HORSE means ‘plower’ and GOPHER means ‘digger.’” Dr. Mozeson has traced 22,000 English words to Semitic roots.

The Persian Connection

            The relationship between Indo-European and Semitic language groups is no accident. Asiatic Researches says, “We may therefore hold this proposition firmly established, that IRAN, OR PERSIA IN ITS LARGEST SENSE, WAS THE TRUE CENTER OF POPULATION, OF KNOWLEDGE, OF LANGUAGES, AND OF ARTS; which, instead of travelling westward only, as it has been fancifully supposed, or eastward, as might with equal reason have been asserted, were expanded in all directions to all regions of the world.” (II:65) Iran, also called Medo-Persia, was the earliest known source of the Indo-European languages, where one branch of mankind evidently settled immediately after the scattering of mankind at the Tower of Babel. (Gen. 11) The lost Ten Tribes of the House of Israel were taken into captivity and settled in this same region of Medo-Persia during their captivity in the 7th-8th centuries, B.C. They would have naturally picked up, in whole or in part, the language of those who held them subject. It is therefore no surprise that the early Anglo-Saxon-Gothic tribes had hundreds of Medo-Persian words in their vocabulary when they escaped into Europe (Appendix 6), and adopted the ‘Indo-European’ (sometimes called, ‘inflexive’) language type, as well. Dr. Joseph Bosworth also concurs in this, saying, “Etymologists have proposed [the language category] Arian or Persian, as it designates their origin amongst the Arians, Iranians, or Persians.” (Bosworth, ‘Origin’ p. 7)

The Sak or Tzakari were Israelites

            Persian inscriptions frequently refer to a people called Sak or Sacae, a term which developed from the name of the Patriarch Isaac. (Appendix 2) Encyclopaedia Britannica gives interesting evidence of the use of this name in ancient times, telling us that Mediterranean sea raiders were active “in the Levant, between 1230-1190 B.C.,” and that Egyptian sources named them the “Danauna... [and] Tzakari,” while Greek tradition referred to them as the “Danaans.” (22:504, ‘Troy’, emphasis added) A connection therefore exists between the Danaan, which we have identified as the Hebrew tribe of Dan, and these Tzakari. Were the Tzakari indeed Hebrews also?

            In Israel’s Tribes Today, Historian Steven M. Collins  says, “The word ‘Levant’ refers to the Eastern Mediterranean, which includes the seacoast of Palestine, the main base of the tribe of Dan. It is significant that the name of another group accompanying the Danite sea raiders included the root word ‘Tzak,’ because it is a Hebrew form of the name ‘Isaac.’ Two modern Israeli leaders with this Hebrew name were Yitzhak Shamir and Yitzhak Rabin. If one represents the ‘Tz’ sound with an ‘S,’ (both symbols are related sibilant consonants) the name of this ancient tribe becomes the ‘Sakari,’ indicating that they were also Israelites. This is an important point, as it indicates that Israelites were known as the ‘Saka’ in Palestine centuries before their descendants (the ‘Saka’ or ‘Sacae’) were known by that same name in Asia!” (Emphasis in original)

The Armenian Connection

            Another little known fact is that the Hebrews originally settled on the south side of the Caucasus Mountains in the region of Mount Ararat (ancient Urartu), in modern Armenia. From there, Abraham’s father, Terah,  moved south to Ur of Chaldees where Abraham was born. Dr. Cunningham Geike, in Hours With The Bible, says, “The tribe to which Abraham, the great forefather of the Hebrews belonged, had its original seat in the district named from Arphaxad, the head of the race, and hence known to the Greeks and Romans by the name of Arrapachitis. It lies north of Assyria in the mountains of Southern Armenia, straight south of the modern city of Kars and of Mount Ararat, and is a tangle of wild hills, rising often to great heights, but intersected by fruitful valleys.” (I:293-4) This birthplace of the Hebrew race was also part of the region called “Aram,” from a son of Shem, which some scholars trace as the root of the word, Armenia. (McClintock & Strong’s Encyclopedia I:407)

            Interestingly enough, this same relatively small region is also cited as the birthplace of the Anglo-Saxon race according to the famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of early Britain. Asiatic Researches  says, “The Saxon Chronicle, I presume from good authority, brings the first inhabitants of Britain from Armenia.” (II:65) 

            Did some of the early Hebrew race migrate westward from Aram, or Armenia, to settle in Britain and Europe, while others ­(in-cluding Abraham’s father, Terah) move southward to Ur in Chaldea? It is an intriguing possibility, especially as some of the early inhabitants of Europe were known as Iberians. This book has traced the word, Iberian, to Eber, the father of the Hebrew race. As Dr. Geake indicated, the Bible is clear that Armenia, or Aram, in early times (circa 2000 B.C.) was inhabited by Hebrews, and it was Hebrew ­colonists from this same region, called Iberians, who settled early Europe. 

            Since Armenia is located just south of the Caucasus Mountains, it is perhaps more than coincidental that European peoples are known as Caucasian. Dr. Joseph Bosworth says that  they are called, “Caucasian, from the supposition that the primitive seat of this race was near Mount Caucasus.” (ibid., p. 7)  Indeed it was!

Summary

            Over many early centuries, a stream of Hebrew-Semitic people migrated westward from the ‘Levant’ or Mid-East. The earliest wave, said to have come from the ­region of Armenia ­(ancient Urartu), was known as Iberian — a name derived from Eber, ancestor of Abraham.

            A later stream continued from Canaan (Palestine), during the Israelites’ sojourn there, and grew larger at the time of the Babylonian and Assyrian invasions. Indeed, the Assyrian conquest is known as ‘the Dispersion’ of Israel, a fit term for the migration of perhaps ­hundreds of thousands of Hebrews out of the Mid-East, many of them to lands of safety in the West.

            Finally, Israelites conquered by Assyria were placed in the region of Medo-Persia, where they adopted the Indo-European, or inflexive language style, and brought it with them when they migrated over succeeding centuries into Europe.

                                                                         

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