Scripture and Scholars say...

1 Ki. 14:15, God “shall scatter” Israel “beyond the river,” not all in one place.

2 Ki. 10:32, “In those days the Lord began to cut off parts of Israel...” –before their final complete exile.

2 Ki. 17:6, The Assyrian king “captured Samaria and exiled Israel”

Deut. 29:28, “cast them into another land, as it is this day”

Isa. 5:26 “the end of the earth”

Isa. 11:11-12, “the four corners of the earth”

Isa. 27:13 (Vulgate), “those lost from the land of Assyria”

Isa. 49:9, “say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Show yourselves.” An address to the lost ten tribes according to Jewish midrash “Pesikta Rabbati 31:10”

Isa. 49:21, (Ten Tribes:) “where had they been?”

Jer. 15:4, “I will cause them to be removed into all kingdoms of the earth”

Hos. 2:14, “I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness,” not a return to Canaan.

Hos. 8:8, “Israel is swallowed up now among the nations”

Hos. 9:17, “wanderers among the nations”

Ezra 1:15, ONLY “Judah and Benjamin” returned; remaining ten tribes did not return

“Israel and Judah... developed more or less independent of the other, Israel in the north and Judah in the south; and only gradually did circumstances bring them together, and then came the inevitable clash of interests, religious as well as political.” –"Hebrew Origins," Theophile James Meek, 1936, p.76

“Israel as a kingdom was never restored from Assyria, as Judah was from Babylon after 70 years.” –Jamieson, Faucett, Brown Commentary, p.650

“There never was a real return from the exile, although some individuals doubtless returned...the captivity of Israel did not actually terminate at 538 [B.C.], nor, in fact, ever.” –Geo. Ricker Berry, Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, “Was Ezekiel in the Exile?” pp.89, 92 (Journal of Biblical Literature 49 (1930)

“Many of the towns in southern Judah and Simeon were not reoccupied after the exile. This process was quite as disastrous as it is portrayed in the Old Testament...” –Thos. Davis, “Shifting Sands,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2004

“That the Redeemer comes ‘from Zion’ [Isa. 59:20] for Israel implies that Israel is in exile...” –G.K. Beale and D.A. Carson, “Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament,” Baker Academic, 2007, p.674

“The exile, into all lands, among all nations, was as irrevocably decreed as was the destruction of the city.” –Charles C. Torrey, Yale University, Journal of Biblical Literature 56 (1937), p.206

“...the returnees came only from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin —the exiles in Babylon. The ten tribes did not return...the loss of the [ten] tribes marked the greatest demographic defeat inscribed in Jewish memory since Biblical times.” –Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, “The Ten Lost Tribes: A World History,” Oxford Univ. Press, 2009, pp.17, 117

“Evidently it was a token return...” –Frank Moore Cross, Harvard University, “A Reconstruction Of The Judean Restoration,” Journal of Biblical Literature 94 (1975), p.15

“The tree of Israel, grown from one root with various branches, was cut into pieces.” –John Calvin, cited in Boer, “John Calvin,” pp. 190-191

“The ten [tribes] which had previously been carried away being scattered among the Parthians, Medes, Indians, and Ethiopians never returned to their native country, and are to this day held under the sway of barbarous nations.” –Sulpitius Severus (circa. 360-420 A.D.), Severus, Sacred History, bk ii, ch. Ii, in Schaff, et al., transl. Sulpitius Severus

“Jewish people often thought that ten of the twelve tribes were lost and would be restored only in the end time.” –Craig Keener, “A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew,” Eerdmans, 1999, p.315

The ten tribes’ not returning opened “a huge wound that does not heal.” –Talmudic Haga, Sefer Ha-Berit Ha-Hadash

"The prophecy of a restored and reunited Israel and Judah...was never actually to be fulfilled... Intransigence on the part of both...produced separate and irreconcilable societies that were never able to reunite." -Bruce Vawter, "Amos, Hosea, Micah, With An Introduction To Classical Prophecy," p.81






Parthian Batteries

Archaeologists have discovered ancient Parthian batteries, but are unsure of their use. In this article, a modern tool and die maker gives the most likely explanation.

2000 Year-old Batteries Used to Electroplate Diamond-Tipped Cutting Tools:
An Explanation of Wilhelm Konigs’ Discovery.

          I have read about Wilhelm Konig’s discovery of numerous two-thousand-year-old electric batteries. Konig, the Director of the Baghdad Museum, alleged that these pottery jars, which contained an acidic solution with a metallic element, were capable of generating a low voltage current. He then suggested that these batteries could have been used in an electroplating process to plate common low cost objects. He suggested that the gold or silver plated objects were used to impress or even to deceive buyers into thinking that they were solid gold or silver items.

I have also read Paul T Keyser’s alternative suggestion for the batteries. Keyser, a scholar from the University of Alberta, wrote an article in the prestigious archaeological Journal of Near Eastern Studies, pointing to analgesic treatment for pain relief. The fact that bronze and iron needles were found in Parthia alongside the battery devices supports his theory of acupuncture, with a small amount of low voltage current run to the needles.

I also believe that electroplating was the intent of these batteries—not to deceive merchants to buy a plated treasure—but to build or manufacture cutting tools. Diamond-tipped cutting tools are built today by placing a diamond at the cutting point of the tool or cutting edge. The tools are then electroplated with a copper solution. This slow build up of copper bonds the diamond to the cutting edge of the tool, which is the same process used today. Many high dollar diamond roll cutting wheels built today require very precise placement, or even hand settings, of the diamonds. Small sharp rods or needles, like the ones found alongside the battery devices found in Parthia, are used to place the diamond in layers at the cutting edge of the tool before they are plated.

A layering process of the electroplating is done to extend the life of the wheel. For example, diamond cutting and grinding wheels are rotated, with only the thin outer edge of diamonds contacting the stone that is being ground. The diamonds in this outer layer begin to dull and are pulled from the copper bond as the cutting pressure increases. The diamonds are placed in these layers so that as the diamonds become dull in the grinding process they are pulled from the cutting wheel, and a sharp new diamond, sitting just below it, is exposed. This method of layered diamonds is termed a self-sharpening super abrasive. Super abrasives have many applications, such as cutting and grinding steel, bronze, copper, glass, and of course stone. The last of these, stone, has the most efficient results. Super abrasive tools can be anything from a thin steel disk with a thin layer of diamonds on the outer diameter to a large complex cast form with diamonds hand set over the outside diameter of the casting. They can be used to cut gear teeth, drill holes, shape spindles, or cut and size the granite blocks used in inspection labs today.

One of the most common ways to make this cutting tool is to hand set diamonds on steel or aluminum wheels using a small needle type tool. After the diamonds are set in place, the tool is then placed into a tank of acid copper. When a low voltage is applied, a copper layer builds over time to lock the diamonds into place.

Today, microscopic manmade diamonds are used in the process described previously. Two thousand years ago, the waste product of the diamond industry would have functioned very well when utilized as the cutting instruments placed in these electroplated wheels. Diamond waste, bonded to any cast iron or bronze surface, would match any diamond-grinding wheel built currently. Two thousand years ago, this technology would have been worth more than its weight in gold or silver.

I believe that low voltage electroplating of diamonds to wheels, disks, drills, chisels, and surface plates is a perfect explanation of the batteries and iron-bronze needles discovered by Konig. It is a practical idea, because low voltage plating and needle type placement tools are still in use today to make the same super-abrasive grinding tools. While reading about ancient stone structures, such as the temple in Jerusalem and its massive stone foundation, I am amazed at the precision of the stone edges and the specific alignment of stone next to stone. I have often thought the only way to produce that kind of square, flat, and accurate fit repeatedly is with the use of super abrasive cutting tools.

                                                            - Gerald Filipek

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